教科文组织为开放科学制定极富雄心的国际标准-清风网
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教科文组织为开放科学制定极富雄心的国际标准

教科文组织为开放科学制定极富雄心的国际标准

(English version below)

出席联合国教科文组织大会的 193 个国家共同通过了第一个关于开放科学的国际框架:《开放科学建议书》。建议书让科学更透明、更可及,进而使其更加公平和包容。

凭借开放科学,科学家和工程师可以使用开放许可更广泛地共享他们的著作、数据、软件,乃至硬件,因此开放科学将强化国际科学合作。

“新冠疫情使公众关注开放科学实践——如科学出版物的开放获取、科学数据的共享、与科学界以外的合作——如何加速研究,并拉近科学政策与社会之间的距离。教科文组织《开放科学建议书》将推动更广泛的开放实践,鼓励更多人认可开放科学,并确保研究成果造福所有人。”

——奥德蕾·阿祖莱(Audrey Azoulay,联合国教科文组织总干事)

以前约70%的科学出版物被锁定在付费阅读的高墙之内。然而过去2年里,在关于新冠肺炎研究的出版物中这一比例已下降到30%左右。这表明科学可以更加开放。

首次实现通用定义

直到今天,开放科学还没有统一的定义,只存在区域、国家或机构层面的标准。《建议书》的通过标志着193个国家同意遵守开放科学共同标准。通过支持一套共同的价值观和指导原则,世界拥有了共同的路线图。

基于对科学的使命,教科文组织正在全球范围内推动向开放科学的转变,并确保它真正服务于缩小国家之间和国家内部的知识和技术差距。

正如《世界人权宣言》第27条所言,开放科学可以成为减少国家之间和国家内部的不平等的有力工具,并促进享有和受益于科学进步之人权。

《建议书》的通过证实会员国已经接受开放科学的理念和实践,并同意每4年报告一次本国的相关进展。

《建议书》呼吁会员国为开放科学建立区域和国际资助机制,并确保所有由公共经费支持的研究都尊重开放科学的原则和核心价值。

《建议书》呼吁会员国投资于开放科学基础设施,并制定个体参与开放科学的必需技能和能力框架。所涉利益相关者包括来自不同学科和职业生涯不同阶段的研究人员。

会员国在实施《建议书》时建议优先考虑的7个领域:

  1. 促进对开放科学及其相关益处和挑战,以及实现开放科学的不同路径的共同理解;

  2. 为开放科学创造有利的政策环境;

  3. 投资于促进开放科学的基础设施和服务;

  4. 投资于培训、教育、数字素养和能力建设,使研究人员和其他利益相关者能够参与开放科学;

  5. 培育开放科学文化,并推出激励措施;

  6. 在科学进程的不同阶段应用实现开放科学的创新方法;

  7. 在开放科学的背景下促进国际和多方利益相关者合作,以减少数字、技术和知识差距。

更多信息:

  • 开放科学

    https://zh.unesco.org/science-sustainable-future/open-science

  • 建议书全文

    https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000378841_chi

  • 开放科学视频:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3Wkvx_ZaFo&t=3s

  • 世界人权宣言:

    https://www.un.org/zh/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights

UNESCO sets ambitious international standards for open science

The first international framework on open science was adopted by 193 countries attending UNESCO’s General Conference. By making science more transparent and more accessible, the UNESCO Recommendation on Open Science will make science more equitable and inclusive. 

Through open science, scientists and engineers use open licenses to share their publications and data, software and even hardware more widely. Open science should, thus, enhance international scientific cooperation. 

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought into focus how open science practices such as open access to scientific publications, the sharing of scientific data and collaboration beyond the scientific community can speed up research and strengthen the links between science policy and society. The UNESCO Recommendation on Open Science will drive the wider adoption of open practices, encourage greater endorsement of open science and ensure that research findings are beneficial to all.”                   

——  Audrey Azoulay, UNESCO Director-General

Some 70% of scientific publications are locked behind paywalls. Over the past two years, however, this proportion has dropped to about 30% for publications on COVID-19 specifically. This shows that science can be more open. 

For the first time, a universal definition

Until today, there was no universal definition of open science and standards existed only at regional, national or institutional levels. In adopting the Recommendation, 193 countries have agreed to abide by common standards for open science. By rallying behind a set of shared values and guiding principles, they have adopted a common roadmap.

With its mandate for the sciences, UNESCO is driving at the global level the shift to open science and ensure that it truly contributes to bridging the knowledge and technology gaps between and within countries. 

Open science can be a powerful tool to reduce inequalities between and within countries and further the human right to enjoy and benefit for scientific progress, as stipulated in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.

With this Recommendation, Member States have embraced the culture and practice of open science and agreed to report back every four years on their progress.

The Recommendation calls on Member States to set up regional and international funding mechanisms for open science and to ensure that all publicly funded research respects the principles and core values of open science. 

The Recommendation calls on Member States to invest in infrastructure for open science and to develop a framework outlining the requisite skills and competencies for those wishing to participate in open science. These stakeholders include researchers from different disciplines and at different stages of their career. 

Member States are encouraged to prioritize seven areas in their implementation of the Recommendation

  1. promoting a common understanding of open science and its associated benefits and challenges, as well as the diverse paths to open science;

  2. developing an enabling policy environment for open science;

  3. investing in infrastructure and services which contribute to open science;

  4. investing in training, education, digital literacy and capacity-building, to enable researchers and other stakeholders to participate in open science;

  5. fostering a culture of open science and aligning incentives for open science;

  6. promoting innovative approaches to open science at different stages of the scientific process; and

  7. promoting international and multistakeholder co-operation in the context of open science with a view to reducing digital, technological and knowledge gaps.

More information:

  • Open Science:

    https://www.unesco.org/en/natural-sciences/open-science 

  • Full text of the recommendation:

    https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000378841

  • Three-minute video on open science:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3Wkvx_ZaFo&t=3s   

  • Universal Declaration on Human Rights:

    https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights 

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